Women at the Front: Hopkins Nurses during WWI

While soldiers were fighting on the battlefield during the First World War, more than 10,000 nurses were fighting for the lives of sick and wounded military personnel. Thousands of brave women registered for the Army Nurse Corps during the First World War with the desire to do their part in the nation’s war effort at a time when women were not part of the military. They worked in hospitals, on the battlefield and in mobile units. More than 200 would die during their service.

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Johns Hopkins nurses wearing gas masks, 1918. From the Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives.

Courageous Johns Hopkins nurses staffed all but one of the 65 nurse positions in the 1,000-bed Johns Hopkins Base Hospital Unit No. 18. Initially, the nurses treated cold-related illnesses, but as the war progressed in the fall of 1918, the unit began to treat war injuries with great frequency. In March of 1918 they treated a convoy of 250 soldiers wounded by mustard gas. American medical personnel were ill-prepared for handling chemical injuries. Mustard gas, more like a liquid than a gas and usually dispersed in droplets, posed a unique challenge. Because the gas impacted skin even when it was covered by clothing, affected soldiers needed to be showered and given new clothes within 30 minutes of impact before they even arrived at the hospital. This required some nurses to go into the field in order to aid in the evacuation and immediate care of injured soldiers.  Once the soldiers were at the hospital, healing them required creativity and ingenuity on the part of the nurses. In order to treat the blisters caused by mustard gases, which could span the entirety of soldiers’ bodies, nurses would often have to cut the blistered skin and bandage it in order to expedite healing. Soldiers also suffered from eye and respiratory issues as a result of gassing.

Under the direction of Bessie Baker (Johns Hopkins Nursing Class of 1902), the nurses of Johns Hopkins Base Unit No. 18 were of great service to the United States military throughout the course of the First World War. To learn more about World War I and Johns Hopkins Nursing’s presence in the Army Nursing Corps, check out the Hopkins and the Great War exhibit (on display until January 2017) at the School of Nursing or online in our digital exhibit.

Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day

Battleship USS West Virginia sunk and burning at Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941. In background is the battleship USS Tennessee.

Battleship USS West Virginia sunk and burning at Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941. In background is the battleship USS Tennessee.

At 7:55 a.m. on December 7th, 1941, the United States was launched into World War II. It was a typical Sunday morning at the Pearl Harbor U.S. naval base, when unexpectedly Battleship Row was attacked by the Imperial Japanese Navy. Though other attacks were launched against U.S. forces elsewhere (Philippines, Guam, Wake Island, Malaysia, Singapore, Honk Kong), Pearl Harbor was geographically closest to the mainland, and as such, raised the most concern among American citizens.

 

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Photo: (Wikipedia) Battleship Row, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Post Japanese attack on December 7, 1941.

The attack was too close for comfort - 2,471 miles from California, compared to battles in far off southeast Asia.  Nevertheless, it was the surprise of the attack, which had a staggering shock effect on the U.S. people. The attack was led by 353 fighter planes and bombers, launched from 6 Japanese aircraft carriers. Battleship Row housed 8 battleships (USS Arizona, Oklahoma, West Virginia, California, Nevada, Pennsylvania, Tennessee and Maryland), and other vessels, cruisers, and destroyers. U.S. fighter jets were launched in a counter move, but to no avail. Ships were bottled up in the harbor while some sank, entombing alive some of its passengers in the hull.

 

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Photos: HistoryChannel.com "Tales of Pearl Harbor Heroics"

In total, 188 U.S. aircraft were destroyed, 2,403 U.S. citizens killed, and 1,178 people were wounded. The Japanese forces lost 29 aircraft in the offensive and suffered 64 casualties. Though the damage was unprecedented, there were notable heroes:

  • Doris "Dorie" Miller (U.S. Navy Messman Third Class)
  • Samuel Fuqua (Rear Admiral)
  • Peter Tomich (U.S. Navy Chief Wartender)
  • George Welch (U.S. Army Fighter Corp Pilot) & Kenneth Taylor (U.S. Army Corp Second Lieutenant Pilot)
  • John Finn (U.S. Navy Chief Petty Officer)
  • George Walters (Civilian dockyard worker)
  • Edwin Hill (U.S. Navy Sailor)
  • Phil Rasmussen (U.S. Army Air Corp Second Lieutenant)

The following day, December 8th, President Franklin D. Roosevelt addressed the nation, calling it "a day that would live in infamy," and declared war on Japan. As the U.S. took action, Nazi German and Italy declared war on the U.S. to which the U.S. responded.

Pearl Harbor Suvivors Marvin Rewerts, 89, right, Nelson Mitchell, 91, middle, walk with a wreath to place at the USS Arizona Memorial, as fellow survivor Darnel Rogers, 91, left, looks on, at the Peal Harbor Remembrance Day ceremonies Wednesday, Dec. 7, 2011, in Phoenix. This year marks the 70th anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor. (AP Photo/Ross D. Franklin)

Source: Associated Press (December 7, 2016): Pearl Harbor Suvivors Marvin Rewerts, 89, right, Nelson Mitchell, 91, middle, walk with a wreath to place at the USS Arizona Memorial, as fellow survivor Darnel Rogers, 91, left, looks on, at the Peal Harbor Remembrance Day ceremonies Wednesday, Dec. 7, 2011, in Phoenix. This year marks the 70th anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor. (AP Photo/Ross D. Franklin)

Tensions between Japan and the U.S. had long been building. After the U.S.'s failed efforts to negotiate a withdrawal of Japanese military from China and Inodochina, Japan launched the attack. The reasoning behind the attack was in hopes of weakening the U.S.'s Pacific fleet, thereby diminishing the possibility of the U.S. interfering Japan's seizure of Southeast Asia. However, the U.S. used the attack on Pearl Harbor as propaganda throughout WW2 to fight and ultimately defeat the Axis Powers. It was empathically effective, because it centered on the emotional sting (anger) caused by what was described as a cowardly act, i.e. not fighting fair.

 

Jerry Yellin, a former captain and World War Two Army Air Force P-51 pilot, embraces Hiroya Sugano, director general of the Zero Fighter Admirers Club, during the 6th annual Blackened Canteen ceremony at the USS Arizona Memorial, during the 75th Commemoration of the attacks on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, U.S. December 6, 2016. US Navy/Petty Officer 2nd Class Somers Steelman/Handout via REUTERS

Photo source: (Reuters, Dec. 7, 2016) Jerry Yellin, a former captain and World War Two Army Air Force P-51 pilot, embraces Hiroya Sugano, director general of the Zero Fighter Admirers Club, during the 6th annual Blackened Canteen ceremony at the USS Arizona Memorial, during the 75th Commemoration of the attacks on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, U.S. December 6, 2016. US Navy/Petty Officer 2nd Class Somers Steelman/Handout via REUTERS

Unfortunately, throughout ww2, innocent Japanese-Americans were relocated to and incarcerated in camps in the western U.S. upon suspicion of being a threat to U.S. citizens. However, time has healed the wounds between Japanese and U.S. soldiers who once fought each other. Several organizations, including the Pearl Harbor Survivors Association, were formed to ensure that survivors are honored annually. The outcome of WWII can be read and viewed in libraries, veteran memorials and museums, as well as online.

Readers are encouraged to visit museums exhibiting official aircraft, and travel to the Oahu, HI and visit Pearl Harbor for a humbling, emotional and beautiful experience.

 

FURTHER READING - Visit our MSE Library catalog for hundreds of books on Pearl Harbor. 

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Photo: USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii (Official Pearl Harbor Tour Site). The ship was bombed and finally exploded and sank. Casualties: 1,177 officers and crewmen.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FILM - View numerous documentaries and films on Kanopy Streaming.

Tora! Tora! Tora!, 1970.

History and Memory, Akiko Productions, 2008.

Pearl Harbor, Touchstone Pictures, 2001.

TOURIST INFORMATION - Official Pearl Harbor Tour Site

ENDNOTES:

Other vessels in Battleship Row:

 

 

Enter the Sweren Student Book Collecting Contest

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The Sweren Student Book Collecting Contest recognizes the love of books and the delight in shaping a thoughtful and focused book collection. Established by longtime friends of the libraries Betty and Edgar Sweren, the annual contest is open to all undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in a degree program at Johns Hopkins. All entries are welcome except past winning collections.

The competition includes a graduate and undergraduate division, and winners in each division are awarded cash prizes.

• $1,000 First Place
• $500 Second Place
• $250 Honorable Mention

Awards will be presented to the winners in the spring of 2017. In addition, selected titles from winning collections will be placed on display in the Brody Learning Commons.

Contest criteria

Each entry will be judged on the extent to which the items in the collection form a coherent pattern of inquiry and/or represent a well-defined field of interest. Additionally, consideration will be given to how well the collection reflects the student’s stated goals and interests.

Guidelines

1. Any student, undergraduate or graduate, enrolled in a degree program at the Johns Hopkins University is eligible to enter.
2. All items must be owned and collected by the student who enters the contest.
3. A collection need not consist of, or include, rare or valuable books. Paper-bound books may be included.
4. Although the focus is books, the collection may include other media that support the collection.
5. Collections can be on any subject. (Past years have included entries of collections related to Colonial America, feminism, running, and music.)

Application information

Each contestant must submit:
1. A cover sheet including the title of your collection
2. A 2-3 page essay outlining the purpose of the collection, how you started and assembled the collection, items of greatest interest, and ideas for the collection’s future development.
3. A bibliography of 20 or more items (maximum of 50) in the collection. Each item should be numbered, given a full bibliographic description, and briefly annotated as to its importance to the collection. Please use the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition.
4. A wish list: A second bibliography listing up to ten items that you would like to add to your collection, with brief annotation stating the reason for adding each item.

Finalists may be asked to bring a portion of their collection to the Milton S. Eisenhower Library for final judging.

Top prize winners of the Sweren contest are also eligible to enter the 2017 National Collegiate Book Collecting Contest, sponsored by the Antiquarian Booksellers Association of America (ABAA), the Fellowship of American Bibliophilic Societies (FABS), and the Center for the Book and the Rare Books and Special Collections Division of the Library of Congress.

For examples of winning entries, see last year's first place winners from the undergraduate and graduate divisions.

The deadline to enter is Friday, February 17, 2017.

For electronic entries, please submit as one PDF document, including cover sheet, to libraryfriends@jhu.edu

Hard copy entries may be mailed to:

Sweren Student Book Collecting Contest
Dean’s Office/Milton S. Eisenhower Library
Johns Hopkins University
3400 North Charles Street
Baltimore, MD 21218

Please contact Shellie Dolan with questions at 410-516-8992 or libraryfriends@jhu.edu

Time for a Timeline

Guest blogger: Macie Hall, from the CER's Innovative Instructor.

After the discussion at our April 1st Lunch and Learn: Faculty Conversations on Teaching on the topic Alternatives to the Research Paper, I was asked about applications for creating timelines. Fortunately there are some good options freely available.

Screenshot of TimelineJS timeline created by Time Magazine on the life of Nelson Mandela. Image of the African National Congress.TimelineJS, developed at Northwestern University’s Knight Lab, uses a Google spreadsheet template to create media-rich timelines. Media from Twitter, Flicker, Vimeo, YouTube, Google Maps, Wikipedia, SoundCloud and other sources can be pulled into a TimelineJS. The resulting timeline can be easily embedded into a website. This is a great resource especially if your students are also using other Google applications, such as Google Sites to build a course or project website. There are good directions, a FAQ, and technical documentation offered on the website. Tech support is also offered via email. Here are some examples of timelines created with TimelineJS.

TimeToast may be the easiest to use of the three tools listed here, and the clean and clear interface is visually rich. Media is limited to images, although web links can be included, and a free account may have some advertising. A FAQ page will give you some direction. Examples of publicly posted timelines will give you an idea of the possibilities TimeToast offers. Information on paid plans is available. These allow collaboration with group creation and comment moderation, and are ad free.

Tiki-Toki Timeline is another web-based option with both free and paid versions. Tiki-Toki advertises its software as “…the only online timeline creator that allows you to view timelines in 3d on the web.” The free version is limited to the creation of one timeline with 200 points (called stories), and some of the features are limited. One potential disadvantage of the free version is that you can’t upload media from your computer, you must use images and other media from the web. A work-around would be to upload media to a website you’ve created, and grab the media from that source. You can embed YouTube and Vimeo videos. Examples can be found by scrolling down on the homepage of the website. You can also get information on the paid accounts, including one aimed at teachers. The FAQ page will help you get started.

For more suggestions, see the article Free Educational Technology: Top 10 Free Timeline Creation Tools for Teachers, by Christopher Pappas, November 4, 2014, updated November 2015.

A Secret Weapon for You

Your librarians know a lot of things. A lot of things. That knowledge comes from many sources, including our widely differing kinds of experience; the kind of books and shows and music we like; and our various academic degrees, including a master's degree from an accredited school of information science.

Trade JournalBut librarians have another source of information about our profession, and so do you:  trade journals.

Trade journals are specialized publications aimed at particular professions. They're not peer-reviewed, but rather supply news about new products, trends, deals, vendors, technology, and other information about your line of work. The Funeral Business Advisor, Aviation Week and Space Technology, Restaurant News, Construction Today, Paralegal Today, Downbeat, and Publishers Weekly are some publications written for specific industries.

Librarians have them, too -- for example, Online Searcher. From a recent issue I learned that:

Trade pub limit in Gen SciWhere can you search information in trade publications? Some of the library's databases have them, including:

The trade magazine or journal about your profession (which also includes job ads) will give you the inside information about what's happening right now in the career that you want.

Who Knew? Library Guides you might not expect!

When you think of libraries, what springs to mind? Books, research databases, datasets, videos, incredibly helpful librarians like me (smile)… right? Well, you might be surprised to know that the guides below are very popular among the MSEL’s biggest fans. Check them out! All the cool kids are…

Career Information
Need a job? Look here for lots of tips, links to books on resume and cover letter development, info about placement services, and links to online databases to search for information about different vocations.

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) & Maps
Having trouble finding your way around? Look at this page for upcoming workshops on GIS, descriptions and recommendations about software packages, information on datasets, and contact information for our resident expert to help you out.

Sustainability
Interested in reducing, reusing, and recycling? Look at this guide for information about how Hopkins and the Libraries are reducing our collective carbon footprint–and get inspiration for your own approach to helping make our world a better place.

Stayed tuned for future blog posts featuring more gems like these!

Unconventional Medicine (and the Baltimore Marathon)

The intriguing topic of “unconventional medicine” is the theme of this year’s Conversations in Medicine speaker series.

Today's medical field is incredibly interdisciplinary. Fascinating and non-traditional careers, related to healthcare but not necessarily requiring an MD, are everywhere. For example:

Look up "Career Research" on the library's Databases by Topic list (on the library home page). The list includes a database known as the Vault (“Vault Career Intelligence”); create a free account and get access to new jobs and internships, reviews, and more.

Please join us to hear about another unconventional medical career from Dr. Nelson Tang, an emergency care specialist here at Hopkins. Here are some highlights:

  • Dr. Tang serves as medical director for the U.S. Secret Service
  • He has served as the director of medical operations for the Baltimore Marathon
  • He is the executive medical director for Johns Hopkins Lifeline, our ground and air critical care transport program

Read Dr. Tang’s articles about working at the Baltimore Marathon, the results of a survey about LGBT-specific education in EMS curricula, and the health problems of law enforcement personnel working on incidents  operations for eight or more hours.

Please join us:

  • Tuesday, November 8
  • Charles Commons Salon C
  • Dessert at 7pm; presentation begins at 7:30pm

 

 

The Enthusiastic Voter!

OK, a big day is fast approaching: Election Day! Arguably, one of the most important elections in recent history. Are you psyched? As you’re preparing to cast your well-informed vote, you might be interested in perusing some of these sources. Knowledge is power!

After you vote, you might want to stay in the patriotic spirit and investigate:

And, finally, after researching diligently, voting enthusiastically, and delving into the history that led to today’s activities, it’s time to relax and unwind with some Presidential-themed Movies and TV shows.

WWI Student Army Training Corps: Hopkins Students Prepare for War

SATC photo 04125

Student Army Training Corps cadets in their Hopkins barracks, 1918. From the Ferdinand Hamburger University Archives.

While many of us are familiar with photos of college students burning draft cards and protesting during the Vietnam War, far fewer people are aware of the impact that World War I had on the students of its time. In 1917, under President Woodrow Wilson, the Selective Service Act was passed, mandating that all men between the ages of 21 and 30 must register for military service. As a result, over 10 million American men registered for the United States military. Not all men who registered for the draft were selected for military service, though and the overwhelming majority of newly drafted soldiers had no military experience or training.

In 1918, in an effort to expedite the influx of trained soldiers into the military, the Student Army Training Corps was created. A voluntary program, SATC allowed willing students to simultaneously study at a college or university and undertake military training, with the intention of joining the military upon graduation. Hundreds of American universities took part in the program, including Johns Hopkins University. Hopkins pledged to accept 708 SATC students on the Homewood campus and in the School of Medicine in order to support the wartime effort. On the Homewood campus, the SATC students would live, train and study on campus and in their living quarters in Gilman, Maryland and Latrobe Halls. In October 1918, the students arrived on campus. While Johns Hopkins was committed to the success of the program, the SATC was short lived. The Student Army Training Corps was disbanded by December 1918 in response to the collapse of the Central Powers and the resultant end of the war.

Though the SATC is long gone, Johns Hopkins is still active in helping students who want to pursue both academics and a military career with an robust ROTC program celebrating its 100th anniversary this year. The Hopkins and the Great War exhibit (on display until January 2017) explores the impact of World War I on the Hopkins community. To learn more about World War I and the Student Army Training Corps, visit the Hopkins and the Great War exhibit on display in the Milton S. Eisenhower Library on Homewood campus, or explore the comprehensive digital exhibit.

Movies & Books to Sink your Teeth into!

From the friendly Count on Sesame Street to Murnau's ghoulish Nosferatu, we seem to love our vampires! Need a fix of good-spirited horror? There are plenty of options right at the Eisenhower Library.

We have a lot of good reads! How about a juicy novel by Anne Rice? Or, a collection of other horror tales and ghost stories? We have many of the works of Bram Stoker, the original Dracula mastermind. Or, maybe you’re a history geek who wants to get right to the source: Vlad III, Prince of Wallachia – aka, Vlad the Impaler – the 15th-century inspiration for Stoker’s novel. How about general books about vampires, werewolves, or other “ghouls and ogres?” MSEL has them!

Let’s not forget our great collection of flicks: Bram Stoker’s Dracula, Interview with the Vampire, Science is Fiction: 23 films by Jean Painlevé, Thirst, and Dreyer’s Vampyr. And there's my personal favorite: Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Browse the whole list!