Who Was Milton S. Eisenhower?

Most people at Hopkins are familiar with the Milton S. Eisenhower Library, part of the Sheridan Libraries. And most people have heard the name Eisenhower in connection with a US President. But who was Milton S. Eisenhower?

Milton Stover Eisenhower, born September 15, 1899, was the fifth son of David and Ida Eisenhower. His older brother, Dwight David (the middle child of five brothers), gained fame as Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe in World War II, and was elected the 34th President of the United States in 1952.

Milton grew up in Abilene, Kansas, and earned a bachelor’s degree from Kansas State University. He worked as an advisor in the Department of Agriculture and served as deputy director of the Office of War Information during World War II. From 1943 to 1950, he was president of Kansas State University. In 1950, he became president of Pennsylvania State University, where he served until 1956. In both positions, he was known as a friend to students, who would socialize with him and seek his advice for difficult problems. For Milton's connection to Hopkins and the library, keep reading after the jump.

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Eerie en Español

Carlos Villarías as the famous vampire

In time for Halloween, let's dig into some creepy films that make use of the world's second most popular language.

Until recently, when pouting and glittering in the sun became the familiar visual for vampirism, most were familiar with the caped and widow-peaked Bela Lugosi as Dracula. What most may not be familiar with is a similarly caped and widow-peaked Carlos Villarías in the same role.

As the film industry transitioned away from silent film and into talkies, they were faced with a problem: they could no longer simply swap out the intertitle cards that contained the film's dialogue for dialogue in another language. Dubbing and subtitles had yet to be embraced, so they resorted to another option: Filming an entirely separate movie with the same sets with the same equipment as the English-language version. Native speakers were swapped out for the English-speaking Hollywood actors and their scenes were filmed during the downtime of the English-language production.

What is interesting about the Spanish-language version of Dracula, however, is that the Spanish-language crew was able to see the work of the English-language production and decided to try and top what they were doing, resulting in a more compelling and artistic picture:

"The American compositions are remarkably flat, like a plan performed on a narrow stage apron. [Spanish-language cinematographer George] Robinson's camera work is distinguished by its use of multiple planes of focus and action. Foreground objects create tension and depth, while middle-ground devices (cobwebs, windows, branches, bars, etc.) further split and define the visual field."

- David J. Skal, "The Spanish Dracula", American Film, September 1990

Fast-forward 80 years. In the 21st century, things are actually going the other way: Spanish filmmakers are producing films in English as a way to expand their audience to a global level. A good example of this trend is the 2001 haunted-house-with-a-twist flick, The Others. Despite being set in British Jersey, the movie was shot by director Alejandro Amenábar (Abre los ojos) in Madrid and the Cantabria region of Spain.

With nary a lick of Spanish spoken, it was a gamble for a Spanish production, but The Others proved to be highly successful. It won 8 Goya Awards (Spanish Oscars), including Best Film--the first English-language film to do so. Internationally, it collected $209 million at the box office. Not too shabby. (Casting Nicole Kidman as the leading lady didn't hurt, either.)

Another creepy English-language Spanish production that pulled the same trick is the Christian-Bale-as-mental-anorexic flick, The Machinist. This time, a Spanish production company and an American director used the outskirts of Barcelona to double for an anonymous American west coast city. Whoda thunk?

Some other Spanish-language chillers include:
The Orphanage
Pan's Labyrinth
The Blood Spattered Bride
The Devil's Backbone

Good books on Spanish-language cinema in general:
Blood Cinema
100 Years of Spanish Cinema
The Faber Book of Mexican Cinema

Research tools to find our more about scary Spanish films:
Film & Media Studies Research Guide

Beyond Frankenstein and Dracula: Literary Halloween Costumes

Still casting about for a Halloween costume? How about paying homage to something you read that sent shivers up your spine? A few suggestions:

  • Shakespeare is always a great source. Banquo's ghost, the weird sisters, Lady Macbeth after the murder, Hamlet's father, the drowned Ophelia--all are classics. If you need visual inspiration, search these characters in ARTstor to see how artists have represented them.
  • Charles Dickens wrote some of the coolest ghosts. Check out Arthur Rackham's drawings of Marley and the Christmas spirits in the Internet Archives' digitized A Christmas Carol.
  • How about the headless horseman in the Legend of Sleepy Hollow? Or, check out the 1999 film version for  post-trick-or-treat viewing with friends.
  • Last, but not least--Edgar Allan Poe. Start with the Roger Corman movies for ideas. You can even build a theme party around many of his stories, like my personal favorite, The Masque of the Red Death, or the Fall of the House of Usher.

If you take the literary path this Halloween, send us a picture and we'll feature it in a future blog!

And, even better, head down to the Peabody Library, the Hogwarts of Baltimore, for an Undergraduate Halloween Party. It will feature a variety of spook-tacular activities including pumpkin carving, a magic show, shadow puppets, old-time fortune-telling games, and a costume contest!

Hard-boiled and Noir Fiction and Film

Travelling through fetid alleyways in the pouring rain, through thronging cities like beating hearts, and darkened rooms echoing gunshots and last breaths, the fiction and film of the hard-boiled and noir genres bring readers and viewers along for vivid, engrossing, sensual experiences that earlier mysteries neglected in favor of purely intellectual exercises.

Often used interchangeably, the terms noir and hard-boiled actually refer to different kinds of works. While hard-boiled stories tend to deal with detectives confronting violence and organized crime, detectives who all the while comment on both the events transpiring as well as their own experiencing of those events (think Dashiell Hammet’s Maltese Falcon or Raymond Chandler’s The Big Sleep), noir tends to deal with more atmospheric adventures wherein the protagonist is more often a victim or a criminal (think James M. Cain’s Double Indemnity, or the works of David Goodis, upon whose stories the films The Fugitive and Tirez Sur le Pianiste (Shoot the Piano Player) are based). Although noir finds its origins variously in French and American sources, the heart of the hard-boiled story is purely American.

The heyday of American examples of the genres was undoubtedly the 30s, 40s and 50s; nevertheless, modern adaptations both in fiction and film abound. The films of the Coen brothers often draw heavily on the tradition of both noir and hard-boiled stories from America’s past. Perhaps one of the most interesting adaptations of the genres, however, comes not from the US, but rather from the north of Europe in the form of Scandinavian noir.

Scandinavian noir owes much to the traditions discussed above. However, as prime examples of the genre show, there are subtle differences; the writing is often sparse, sharp, simple and realistic and the plots often carry heavy moralistic undertones. Progenitors of the genre include Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö, whose Martin Beck series of novels depict a tumultuous Sweden of the 1960s, bent on revolution and social upheaval. Perhaps more well known examples include Henning Mankell's Wallender series, and Stieg Larsson's internationally best-selling Millenium series, the first of which, The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo has been adapted for the big screen twice in the course of just two years. Clearly the fascination with unsolved murder and illicit dealings is alive, well, and spreading around the globe!

Open Access Happens More Than One Week Per Year

OAweek2014We've wished you a Happy Open Access Week several times in this space. Problem is, Open Access (or OA) is available all the time. And the JHU Libraries provide services and resources to help you with your OA-related needs. So instead of focusing on OA Week, here's a round-up of OA services and resources that the JHU Libraries provide.

Information Sources - Do you have questions about authors' rights, the Digital Humanities, or Open Access itself? Then check out our Scholarly Communications guide. It offers an overview of OA and other new trends in scholarly publishing.

Open Access Promotion Fund - Perhaps our most popular service, this fund helps young JHU researchers (students and untenured faculty) with the article processing charges some OA journals require. To be eligible for reimbursement, the article must be published in a journal listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals. If the article processing charges are not covered by a grant, researchers can be reimbursed up to $1500 per article from the OAPF. A researcher can receive a maximum of $1500 per year from the fund. See the OAPF page for more details and a link to the submission form.

Data Management Services - The JHUDMS helps JHU researchers in managing, sharing and archiving their research data. We serve the Homewood campus, School of Medicine, and Bloomberg School of Public Health by providing the following services.

  • We assist with the organization and preparation of Data Management Plans for grant proposals.
  • We provide consulting and training services on the best practices of data management for researchers and graduate students.
  • We provide a data sharing and archiving solution here at JHU through the JHU Data Archive. This is an archiving option that includes assigning of permanent identifiers to data collections and organization of the data for public access and sharing.

Electronic Publishing Services - Want to start your own OA journal? We can help! Our User Interface Applications Group provides OA journal hosting, including initial setup, configuration, training, registration with search engines, acquisition of ISSN, registration with bibliographic indexes, creation of library catalog record, record uploaded to WorldCat, etc. If you're interested in OA books, we can help with e-book consultation and creation. We can discuss e-book format options, e-book generation using open-source software tools, custom e-book design and programming with you. Contact Mark Cyzyk, mcyzyk@jhu.edu.

Electronic Theses and Dissertations - Starting last year, all doctoral dissertations and most masters theses must now be submitted electronically. These documents will be made freely available to the public in a library repository, although students may place an embargo of up to four years in order to delay publication. Questions may be directed to David Reynolds at 410-516-7220 or etd-support@jhu.edu.

JScholarship - This is our institutional repository that lets faculty deposit born-digital or digitized research and instructional materials such as scholarly articles, working papers, and technical papers. Make your research reach a wider audience by making it freely available here. For more information, contact David Reynolds at 410-516-7220 or davidr@jhu.edu.

Museums Studies Research: Near & Far

If you’re studying for an MA in Museum Studies or enrolled in the undergraduate Museums & Society program – or, if you’re just plain interested in museums – you may want to know about resources you can use here and abroad!

Based in Baltimore? Head over to the library to find books in our collection on museums in general or related topics, such as art conservation, museum and exhibit design, and effective management of cultural properties. Our printed collection is growing by the day! And if you need help feel free to call, text, chat, email, or stop by.

For those off campus, we have a growing collection of electronic books in museum studies. Since the MA in Museum Studies program is nearly entirely online, these are particularly useful for students enrolled in this program. And, assistance for students in this program is just an email away at washrocklibraries@jhu.edu.

No matter where you are geographically, be sure to use our Museum Studies Research Guide to point you to even more scholarship in the field!

On-Site Borrowing: One More Reason to Love BorrowDirect

Do you occasionally find yourself in a community where you’d like to use the research library? Under a new pilot agreement, JHU students, faculty, and staff have on-site borrowing privileges at the following BorrowDirect institutions: Brown University, University of Chicago, Columbia University, Cornell University, Dartmouth College, Duke University, Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Pennsylvania, Princeton University, and Yale University.

Be prepared to present your JHU ID and login to your BorrowDirect account. Once authenticated you will be issued a library card.

Borrowing privileges vary by institution, and the lending library’s policies and loan periods apply. Before you visit, you should review individual library polices. Borrowed items may be returned at either the lending library or JHU.

For the most part, these same materials already are available through BorrowDirect, but this new agreement expands BorrowDirect to include in-person borrowing.

If you have questions you can contact us at circmail@jhu.edu

Catalog This!

Ever wonder what happens behind the scenes to make library materials accessible to the public (that’s you!)? After books are selected and ordered, Cataloging staff work their magic to let you know what we've got. The word cataloging itself conjures images of card catalogs, book carts, and Dewey Decimal numbers, and while both of those are still in use to some extent, the majority of what cataloging means these days involves creating electronic access to metadata that describes both physical materials as well as digitized and born-digital materials that a library either leases or owns.

Phew, that was a mouthful! What does all that actually mean, you ask? Cataloging, at its core, is about creating machine readable catalog records (known as MARC records), according to a set of rules; for many years these rules were the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (2nd edition). However, a new set of rules has just recently been implemented....more on this below! These records describe books, movies, sound recordings, journals, manuscripts, and archival collections. A MARC record contains a lot of information that you would assume should be there (things like title, author, publication information, how many pages/volumes are present, subject, etc.) MARC records form the backbone of our public interface, Catalyst. Catalyst pulls the information from the MARC records in our database and displays that information to the public in a way that allows the public to search and discover the materials that they need.

Where do those MARC records come from, you ask? Well, cataloging can be broken down into two main divisions: copy cataloging and original cataloging. OCLC, the Online Computer Library Center, maintains the largest database of MARC records in the world. These records have been created by librarians from decades ago up through today (librarians have always been great at sharing!). When we acquire a new book, OCLC’s database is searched to discover if a record for that book has already been created. If so, then we use that record. That’s known as copy cataloging (cataloging from copy that already exists). If a record does not exist, then we create one within OCLC’s database so that any other OCLC member library can use that record, and then download the record into our local database. This is known as original cataloging.

Now, all this sounds like a manual, labor intensive process, and while cataloging is complex, thanks to the monumental efforts of our Technical Services department, the vast majority of this process has been automated. With the assistance of a number of different services we are able to import bulk records for the materials that we acquire.

What does the future hold for cataloging? Right now is one of the most exciting times to be a cataloging librarian. The rules we currently use to catalog were originally created in 1967, with the second edition published in 1978. While these rules have been updated throughout the years, no significant changes have taken place. That is until now. Starting in April 2013, the US national libraries and the Sheridan Libraries, along with many other libraries throughout the country (and around the world) switched to a new cataloging code, known as RDA (Resource Description and Access). This new code has been crafted to be more flexible, more adaptable to changing data architecture, and more user-friendly (gone are the Latin abbreviations!). Stay tuned for more as the cataloging world turns...

Google Scholar: Where Does it Fit?

If you've ever lookegooglescholard for articles on a topic, or for a specific article, you've probably tried Google Scholar. If you've attended a library instruction session, you've probably been dazzled by the number of article databases available: everything from ABI/Inform Complete to Zoological Record.

And now Google Scholar appears on the updated Sheridan Libraries' homepage! Why would we do that? We placed Google Scholar there because we know a lot of you use it to find articles. Below are some facts and tips about Google Scholar that should help you make the best use of it.

Google Scholar indexes the full text of articles when the publishers make it available. Read this if you want all the details. The short story is that Google Scholar crawls and indexes the full text articles of most scholarly journal publishers. Library databases generally index the abstracts, author-supplied keywords, and maybe some subject headings. Understanding this distinction will help you craft your search for the tool you're using.

So when should I use a library database? When you get too many results from Google Scholar, switch to a library database. The subject headings/thesauri offered by databases like PsycINFO, Compendex, or ERIC can really help you focus your research. Some databases specialize in a narrow field, and they'll pick up articles that Google Scholar won't. Examples of these include: Index to 19th Century American Art Periodicals, Environment & Energy Publishing, and the Handbook of Latin American Studies.

"Cited by" tells you which articles have cited the article you're reading about. This is a good way to find more literature on your topic.

The Cite link gives you the article reference in three citation styles: APA, MLA, and Chicago. This is useful for building your bibliography or just tracking what you've read.

What about off-campus access to the articles? If you're off-campus and start with the Google Scholar search on the library home page, you'll see the JHU FindIt links that take you to the full text of the article. If you're off-campus and start at Google Scholar, you'll need to set up your computer to display the FindIt links. This video shows you how to do that.

What a tangled web we weave, when first we practice to deceive

Spirit of Shakespeare 2The guest blogger for this post, Neil Weijer, is a Denis Curatorial Fellow at the Sheridan Libraries and a doctoral candidate in the Department of History. Weijer co-curated the Fakes, Lies, & Forgeries exhibition, which opens October 5 at the George Peabody Library and runs through February 1, 2015.

As a species, we’ve had quite a lot of practice with deception. For proof of this, look no further than the Fakes, Lies, & Forgeries exhibition, which contains just some of the highlights of the Arthur and Janet Freeman Bibliotheca Fictiva Collection, itself a gathering of more than 1700 spurious works. (A tangled web indeed!) With little exaggeration, it is perhaps the greatest record of mankind’s long history of exaggeration, falsification, and outright forgery that has ever been assembled.

But like the Bibliotheca Fictiva, the exhibition is more than just a trophy gallery of hoaxes found out and pilloried in the public square. Perhaps the most interesting and amazing things about these items are the lives they took on after their initial creation, or “discovery." Some gained staunch defenders along with fierce critics. Others re-shaped the course of history (or the naming of this country). Still more remain mysterious to this day—their authors, and even their aims, unknown.

Deciding what to put on display was difficult, since these fictions and forgeries come in all shapes and sizes. There is almost no limit to the range of people, places, and things caught up in their stories. Some items that made the cut were a late copy of what may have been the first “chain letter,” originally sent (it claims) by Jesus from heaven and still going strong over a millennium later; charters and law codes bearing the names of medieval kings; falsely attributed poems and plays; faked inscriptions and signatures; and even the concocted account of a local Baltimorean, Joseph Howard Lee, who in the early twentieth century toured America as LoBagola, a “savage” prince-in-exile from deepest Africa.

In the end, we chose to highlight the tangled web between truth and falsehood that is the true domain of forgery. For any deception to work, its audience needs not only to find it plausible but also to want to believe it. These items all play off of each other and off of us, their observers, exploiting gaps in our knowledge, as well as errors in our “common knowledge.” Sir Walter Scott would doubtless be irritated that his couplet makes an apt title for this blog post, not just for its content but because it is commonly attributed to Shakespeare (shown above—in ghostly guise—defending his good name from an eighteenth-century impostor, William Henry Ireland).

We hope you enjoy our guided tour through the dark corridors of deception. We promise you’ll have fun. Trust us.